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作文 > 写作指导 > 经验交流 > 主谓一致、被动语态讲与练

主谓一致、被动语态讲与练

2007-12-21

    主谓一致,顾名思义,指的是主语与谓语的一致。那么,哪些方面主语和谓语应保持一致呢?归纳起来,有三种情况,即语法形式上、语词意义上和就近关系上。
 主语和谓语在语法形式上一致这种情况下,句中作主语的词若是单数形式,谓语动词则用单数形式;若主语是复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。
    主语用单(复)数形式,谓语动词也用单(复)数形式。
     例:The results of the exam show that you have all made good progress. 考试的结果表明,你们都进步很大。
         The content of his book is very good. 他那本书的内容很好。
         We all like football. 我们都喜欢足球。
主语中有and 连接词时,谓语动词多用复数。但如果主语表示抽象整体概念或表示一个单一的概念时,谓语动词则要用单数。例如:
        The singer and the dancer have come to the meeting. 那个歌手和那舞蹈演员已经到了会场。(主语表示两个人)
        The singer and dancer has come to the meeting. 既是歌手又是舞蹈演员的那个人已经到了会场。(主语表示一个人)
        When and where to build a new school is not decided. 什么时候在什么地方建一所新学校还未定下来。(where and where表示抽象整体概念)
       若主语是单数,尽管后面跟有with, together with, as well as, no less than, including, like, but, except 等引起的短语,谓语动词仍用单数。例如:
      An expert together with two assistants was sent to the factory. 派了一个专家和两个助手去那个厂。
      Mary, like Lily, was late. 玛丽像莉莉一样也迟到了。
     主语是动名词、不定式或从句时作单数看待,谓语动词用单数。例如:
      Smoking is harmful to your health. 吸烟有害健康。
      To grow vegetables needs constant watering. 种菜需要常浇水。
      What he said sounds reasonable. 他说的话听起来有道理。
    主语是each, neither, either, 或由some, any, no, every构成的复合代词时看作单数,谓语动词用单数
    例如: Each of us has a new bike. 我们每个人都有新单车。

  Is everybody here? 大家都到齐了吗?
           Nobody knows who he is. 没人知道他是谁。
     主语和谓语在语词意义上一致此时的主谓一致指的是,谓语动词用单数还是用复数不是由主语的形式决定,而是由主语表达的意义决定。 any,all,most,more,none,what,who,which等代词作主语时,可以表示单数,也可以表示复数,主要由意思确定:
     Which is your book? 哪本是你的书?
     Which are your books? 哪几本是你们的书?
    Here is some more.这里还有一点。(指不可数的东西)
    Here are some more. 这里还有一些。(指可数的东西)
    None of the books are easy enough for me. 这些书全都太难,不适合我的水平。
    None of us has got a car. 我们中间没有一个人有汽车。
    主语是people, police, cattle, poultry (家禽)等集体名词时,其形式是单数,但意义上表示复数,谓语动词应用复数。例如:
     The police are looking for him. 警察正在找他。
     Cattle feed on grass. 牛以草为食。
    有些集体名词,如:public, family, audience, class, population, company, group, government等词,作主语时既可表示单数意,又可表复数意。若其强调一个整体,谓语动词用单数;若强调整体中的个体,则谓语动词用复数。例如:
     My family is a large one. 我家是个大家庭。
     My family are all music lovers. 我们家个个喜欢音乐。
     主语是单复数同形的名词时,如works, sheep, means, deer 等,谓语动词用单数还是复数要根据意思决定。但news只作单数用。例如:
     Each possible means has been tried. 每一种可能的方法都试过。
     All possible means have been tried. 所有可能的方法都试过。
    Good news goes on crutches, bad news files apace.好事不出门,坏事传千里。
     表示数量、重量、度量、时间、距离、价格的复数名词作主语时,一般作整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:
     Two weeks is allowed for you to prepare. 给你两周的时间作准备。
     Ten kilometers is not a long distance. 十公里不是很长的路程。
     有些形容词与the连用表复数意义,谓语动词用复数,例如:
     The Chinese are brave and diligent. 中国人勤劳勇敢。
     The rich always look down upon the poor. 富人通常看不起穷人。
     有些国名、人名、书刊名、学科名、组织名称等专有名词虽然是复数形式,但其做主语时,谓语动词仍用单数形式。例如:
    The United Nations was found in 1945. 联合国于1945年成立。
    Physics is a very interesting subject. 物理是一门很有趣的学科。
    不可数名词做主语时,如果前面有表示数量的可数名词,谓语动词用复数。
    例如: Three million tons of coal were exported that year. 那年出口了三百万吨煤。
     三、谓语和就近的主语一致句子中有两个或两个以上主语时,谓语的单复数形式由与之邻近的主语决定。主语由or, either…or, not only…but also, 或neither...nor 连接时,谓语动词与其邻近的主语的数保持一致。例如:
     Either you or he is to do the work. 不是你就是他做这项工作。
    She or her children are coming to help you. 她或她的孩子们会来帮你。
    Neither you nor I am able to persuade her.你和我都没有办法说服她。
    在由there 或 here 引起的倒装句中,谓语动词通常也和最邻近的主语保持数的一致。例如:
    Here is a pen, two envelopes and some paper for you. 这儿有一支笔,两个信封和一些纸给你。
    There are four chairs, a table and a bed in the room. 房间里有四把椅子,一张课桌和一张床。
    注:生活中,这种受邻近词影响的情况越来越常见了。例如:
    Where is your wife and children to stay while you are away? 你离开期间,你爱人和孩子们在哪儿待着呢?
    Is your sister and her husband coming to join us? 你姐姐和她爱人要来参加我们的活动吗?


  附:主谓一致练一练选择正确选项:
     1.All but one ________ here just now.
      A、are B、was C、were D、is
     2.The number of people invited __________ fifty, but a number of them ______ absent for different reasons.

A、   were, was B、was, was C、was, were D、were, were
3.All that can be done __________.
 A、has been done B、have been done C、was done D、were done
4.Two fifths of land in that district ________ covered with trees and grass.
   A、are B、is C、has D、have
5.They each ________ a new dictionary.
   A、have B、are C、is D、has
6.The wounded _______ by the hospital.
   A、has been taken in B、have taken in C、has taken D、have been taken in
 Key: 1---6 CCABDD


被动语态讲与练


     被动语态是由be+过去分词构成,它的各种时态变化都是通过be 的变化表现出来的。当描述事物已经受到某种影响或某种处理;或者描述人物已经被动地接受某种行为或某种处理时,我们就使用现在完成时的被动语态。现在完成时的被动语态是由have(has)+been+过去分词构成的。have 有人称、时态的变化。
     1.第一人称、第二人称、第三人称复数形式做主语时,谓语动作用“have been +过去分词”形式;主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动作用“has been+过去分词”形式。 All the CAAC offices have been joined by the new computers .民航局的所有售票处都由新计算机联系起来了。 The child has been taken care of by Grandma Wang all the years .这些年来,这个小孩一直由王奶奶照料。
    2.现在完成时被动语态的否定形式为“have/ has not been +过去分词”,疑问形式为“Have / has +主语 +been +过去分词+其它?”。 The dirty clothes haven’t been washed.这些脏衣服没有洗。 How many languages has the book been translated into?这本书已被译成多少种语言?
    3.一般来说,只有及物动词才有被动语态,因为只有及物动词才可能有动作的承受者。但有许多由不及物动词加介词或副词构成的短语,相当于及物动词,可以有宾语,因而也可以有被动语态。但应注意:短语动词是一个不可分割的整体,变为被动语态时,不可丢掉构成短语动词的介词或副词。如: They have put up a notice on the wall. → A notice has been put up on the wall. The chair has been looked after in the museum by the assistant.


 [练习]
I.根据句意,用所给动词的适当形式填空。
      1.Margaret can't walk, because her leg ___(break).
      2.Maria's English ___(improve).
      3.His keys ___(lose) on the way to the library.
      4.My watch ___(not repair) yet.
      5. In the past few years many buildings ___(build).
      6.So far eleven units ___(learn) in all. .
      7. The two papers ___(not finish) yet.
II.从A、B、C、D中选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案。
   1.John _____,for he went swimming yesterday without permission.
    A. would punish B. had punished C. was punished D. punished
  2. If rubber _____,it gives off a terrible smell.
    A. burnt B. will burn C. have been burned D. is burned
  3. ―_____ the sports meet might be put off.
    ―Yes,it all depends on the weather.
    A. I've been told B. I've told C. I'm told D. I told
  4. The book _____ under the chair for two days.
    A. has put B. has been lying C. has been put D. have been laid
  5. Since the first space mission,many communication satellites _____ .
   A. was launched B. are launched C. have been launched D. had been launched
  6. The bridge which _____ last year _____ really beautiful.
   A. was built;looks B. was building;looks C. was built;is looked D. was building;is looked
 7. Many years ago,Jim _____ in Paris with his uncle for along period of time.
   A. had been living B. had lived C. lived D. has been living
 8. By the time you get back,great changes _____ in this area.
   A. will take place B. will be taken place C. are going to take place D. will have taken place
 9. The price of the tickets is too high,so they _____ .
   A. sell badly B. are sold bad C. are sold badly D. sell bad
 10. ―Did you enjoy last night's concert?
   ―Yes,though the last piece _____ rather poorly.
   A. played B. was played C. was playing D. playing
Key: I. 1.has been broken 2. has been improved 3. have been lost 4. hasn’t been repaired 5. have been built 6. have been learned 7. haven’t been finished
    II. 1―5CDABC 6―10ACDAB

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